Acute Infectious Arthritis

Acute infectious arthritis is commonly a bacterial infection, caused by viruses or fungi, of the synovial or periarticular tissues. The condition most typically involves young adults and children. In young adults the bacterium most commonly responsible is gonococcal bacteria-neisseria gonorrhoeae but infections could happen from nongonococcal bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. The infection could build up within a few hours or days.

The bacteria reproduce and infect the articulation lining and fluid of such tissues. Symptoms of Acute infectious arthritis from gonococcal infection may include moderate to intense joint pain, tenderness, limited motion, heat and inflammation, skin lesions, shivers, pyrexia, tenosynovitis and artlagia in one or two but seldom more articulations, commonly a small joint of the hand, wrist joint and elbow joint. The infection becomes inflammatory and persistent. Youngsters with acute infectious arthritis could present with restricted motion of a limb, snappishness and high or low-grade fever.

The immune system react to the infection with its main line of defense force, Polymorphonuclear (PMN) Leukocytes versus bacterial .These are three types of white cells that enter the joint, engulf bacteria and destroy them (phagocytose) by using the all-powerful lysosomal enzymes. Although the PMNs destroy the infecting organisms the same time the release of the enzymes into he articulations harms the cartilage, synovial lining and ligaments. Joint cartilage could be destroyed within hours.

Patients diagnosed having acute infectious arthritis most usually they are patients troubled with monoarthritis or oligoarthritis and with a combination of symptoms typical to infectious arthritis syndromes. If your health care provider suspects acute infectious arthritis he will ask for joint tapping to analyze synovial fluid. Synovial fluid analysis in concert with other clinical means is applied to separate acute infectious arthritis from different forms. Testing of joint synovial fluid cultures is the most crucial way for a diagnosis.

X-ray pictures could are taken as portion of the diagnosis but only to exclude conditions such as fractures and other unconnected joint irregularities. If the joint can not be easily accessed for test Ultrasound and/or MRI might considered for identification of sites in the joint with abscess to be drained as treatment but also diagnosing the condition. In addition your physician might ask for blood cultures, complete blood count (CBC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).

Acute infectious arthritis, owed to gonococcal infection, doesn't normally harm joints permanently. However, the infection could destroy the cartilage of the joint inside a few hours or days for good, leading to an outcome particularly deficient in articular function. Patients with raised susceptibility to infections and those with different forms of arthritis might have a heightened risk of infectious arthritis severity.